The following are the toilet parts names which one needs to know when performing toilet repair or to fix a toilet that is not working. The first thing to determine is if the toilet bowl or waste piping below the floor are clogged. If neither of these are true then you can continue reading. If either the bowl or piping is blocked then drain service is needed, not a toilet repair. To learn more about toilet parts so that your toilet can be repaired or causing the toilet to not be working.
There are various symptoms of a toilet that needs repair; toilet running, toilet rocking, toilet not flushing, etc.
Flange: This is a specialized part of the waste piping hidden beneath the toilet. If the toilet flange is broken or damaged you will not know until the toilet is removed. A broken or damaged toilet flange can often be the reason the toilet is rocking, water damage has occurred in the ceiling below the toilet, or water appears on the floor at the base of the toilet.
Flapper (stopper): This is the device that lets the water out of the tank when you press on the trip lever. This is part of the flush valve assembly which is usually in the center of the toilet tank.
Closet Bolts: These attach to the flange and hold the toilet to the floor. If they become loose or break, then the toilet will rock and the wax ring sealing the toilet to the waste piping will leak.
Tank to bowl bolts & seal: These bolts hold the tank to the bowl and the seal is a rubber fitting that seals in the water as it passes from the tank to the bowl. The seal or gasket is custom designed for each different kind of toilet.
Flush valve: This is the assembly of parts that flushes the toilet (lets water out of the tank). In most toilets the flush valve is separate but mounted to the tank and is in the middle. The flush valve has a “seat” where the flapper or stopper rests. The tube that goes up above the water level, also part of the flush valve is called the “overflow.”
Fill Valve: Correct term: ballcock. This automatically refills the tank to a pre-set level. The level should be about ¾ in. below the top of the overflow tube.
Trip lever: The trip lever is what you push on to flush the toilet. This is connected to a flapper or stopper with a chain or rod.
Toilet “seal”: This is not a term, more of a description of the (typically) wax ring that is between the bottom of the toilet and the opening of waste piping (hole in the floor). If the toilet moves or is “rocking” this seal will fail and water will damage the ceiling below or come out onto the bathroom floor when the toilet is flushed.
Two piece toilet: This is the most common type of toilet. There is a separate tank which is bolted to the bowl.